Differences Between jQuery .bind() vs .live() vs .delegate() vs .on()

Introduction

I’ve seen quite a bit of confusion from developers about what the real differences are between the jQuery .bind(), .live(), .delegate(), and .on() methods and when they should be used.

If you want, you can jump to the TL;DR section and get a high-level overview what this article is about.

Before we dive into the ins and outs of these methods, let’s start with some common HTML markup that we’ll be using as we write sample jQuery code.

Using the Bind Method

The .bind() method registers the type of event and an event handler directly to the DOM element in question. This method has been around the longest and in its day it was a nice abstraction around the various cross-browser issues that existed. This method is still very handy when wiring-up event handlers, but there are various performance concerns as are listed below.

The .bind() method will attach the event handler to all of the anchors that are matched! That is not good. Not only is that expensive to implicitly iterate over all of those items to attach an event handler, but it is also wasteful since it is the same event handler over and over again.

Pros

Cons

Using the Live Method

The .live() method uses the concept of event delegation to perform its so called “magic”. The way you call .live() looks just like how you might call .bind(), which is very convenient. However, under the covers this method works much different. The .live method attaches the event handler to the root level document along with the associated selector and event information. By registering this information on the document it allows one event handler to be used for all events that have bubbled (a.k.a. delegated, propagated) up to it. Once an event has bubbled up to the document jQuery looks at the selector/event metadata to determine which handler it should invoke, if any. This extra work has some impact on performance at the point of user interaction, but the initial register process is fairly speedy.

The good thing about this code as compared to the .bind() example above is that it is only attaching the event handler once to the document instead of multiple times. This not only is faster, but less wasteful, however, there are many problems with using this method and they are outlined below.

Pros

Cons

Using the Delegate Method

The .delegate() method behaves in a similar fashion to the .live() method, but instead of attaching the selector/event information to the document, you can choose where it is anchored. Just like the .live() method, this technique uses event delegation to work correctly.

If you skipped over the explanation of the .live() method you might want to go back up and read it as I described some of the internal logic that happen.

The .delegate() method is very powerful. The above code will attach the event handler to the unordered list (“#members”) along with the selector/event information. This is much more efficient than the .live() method that always attaches the information to the document. In addition a lot of other problematic issues were resolved by introducing the .delegate() method. See the following outline for a detailed list.

Pros

Cons

Using the On Method

Did you know that the jQuery .bind(), .live(), and .delegate() methods are just one line pass throughs to the new jQuery 1.7 .on() method? The same is true of the .unbind(), .die(), and .undelegate() methods. The following code snippet is taken from the jQuery 1.7.1 codebase in GitHub

With that in mind, the usage of the new .on() method looks something like the following…

You’ll notice that depending how I call the .on() method changes how it performs. You can consider the .on() method as being “overloaded” with different signatures, which in turn changes how the event binding is wired-up. The .on method bring a lot of consistency to the API and hopefully makes things slightly less confusing.

Pros

Cons

Conclusion (tl;dr)

If you have been confused about the various different types of event binding methods then don’t worry, there has been a lot of history and evolvement in the API over time. There are many people that view these methods as magic, but once you uncover some of how they work it will help you understand how to better ode inside of your projects.

The biggest take aways from this article are that…

Were there any pros or cons that you would have added to the above lists? Have you found yourself using the .delegate method more recently? What are you thoughts on the new .on method? Leave your thoughts in the comments. Thanks!